The field of Education has undergone extraordinary changes in recent years, and the third edition of this renowned reference work presents authoritative scholarship and extensive coverage of the topic. The book succeeds two previous editions that were highly successful, and aims to distill the latest research in this dynamic field for the twenty-first century reader. It contains more than 1,000 articles, organized across 24 separate areas of coverage. As one of the foremost reference works in this field, this new edition promises to be an essential tool for students and professionals alike.
The scope of this field is enormous, encompassing disciplinary know-how, pedagogical methods, and educational aids. It also covers censorship and limitations on educational freedom. Occupational knowledge includes skills, techniques, and procedures, as well as personal and transversal capabilities and awareness. It also encompasses the study of human attributes such as intelligence, learning theory, and psychological testing. Education encompasses all aspects of the educational process, from conception to implementation.
With proper education, an individual can navigate through life with ease and contribute to society. Higher education has many benefits, including the ability to earn more and become more employable. In low-income countries, education is estimated to lift 171 million people out of poverty. As an adult, education prepares individuals for the complexities of life, such as making decisions every day and choosing the proper career. Education is a key factor for equality of opportunity. Education is crucial for everyone, regardless of gender. Education is the cornerstone of a bright future.
In addition to public schools, there are also private and public institutions that offer education. In New Zealand, there are 11 Industry Training Organisations. These bodies purchase training, set standards, and aggregate opinion of industry on the necessary skills. The scope of this type of education has expanded from apprenticeships to true lifelong learning. However, some training is generic, challenging the notion of vocational education. The two main types of vocational education are the National Vocational Qualifications and the University of New Zealand.
Earlier, the educational system of Nigeria was a six-five-four system. Between 1980 and 2005, it was changed to a 6-3-3-4 system, and in 2008, to the current 9-3-4 model. Almost all lower secondary school students move on to upper secondary education. About half of them join one of nine vocational programmes. The first year of their education consists of general education while the second year focuses on trade-specific study.
Apart from educational goals, schooling systems are driven by aims. These are the vision of the schooling system, and they are largely reflective of the culture, norms, and institutions that a nation or society wishes to foster. The aims of a schooling system can also be derived from the social possibilities it seeks to foster in its citizens. The aim of a school may be to ensure economic growth and to navigate political and economic institutions.